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Meanwhile, environmental pollution and urban noise often happen because of the building of transport infrastructures, driving the generation of negative spillover effects.
The existence of complex characteristics and significant roles drives the generation of multiple impacts of transportation infrastructures on the economy, society and environment.
The Multiple Impact of Transportation Infrastructure The transportation infrastructure represents the motivator of economic growth and social welfare [ 23 ] through improving production performances and investment performances for the private sectors [ 24 ].
More specifically, the construction of transportation infrastructure could reduce the travel cost, attract foreign investment and expand trade of shared resources [ 25 ]. In terms of the social overhead capital, transport infrastructure plays a decisive role in industrialization and has obvious spillover effects on regional innovation, factor reallocation and manufacturing productivity [ 26 ], which promote the aggregation of industries, population and economy [ 16 ]; this is often called the economic distributional effect.
However, some empirical studies have shown that the expansion of high-speed railway networks promotes the development of central cities but causes the economic growth rate of prefecture-level cities along the rail line to decline, which is referred to as the siphon effect [ 27 ]. Although different results were found based on various data sources or research objects, the empirical study is the most common and effective method to identify the positive or negative effects of transportation infrastructures.
Meanwhile, excessive infrastructure construction could put huge pressure on the natural and ecological environment when meeting the need for economic development and social improvement [ 28 ]. Transportation infrastructure provides the fundamental conditions for economic activities, while some spillover effects happen concomitantly [ 29 ], such as CO2 emission generated via domestic and global production networks [ 30 ], ecological destruction because of the biological habitat fragmentation [ 11 ] and the change of water flow and declining water quality [ 31 , 32 ].
Since the United States published the Environmental Impact Assessment EIA in [ 33 ], environmental problems have become a significant part of the law, and many topics have received wide attention. For the transport sector, apart from cost-benefit, design and investment analyses, environmental impacts such as CO2 emission and air quality are the main evaluation criteria [ 34 ].
In addition, some universal and systematic methods have been used to evaluate environmental performances, such as the multi-criteria model, meta-analysis [ 35 ], ecological footprint index [ 36 ], and value equilibrium analysis [ 37 ]. From the perspective of the environment, the effects of the transportation infrastructure are almost all negative, so minimizing the environmental impact has been the main research topic. Additionally, transport infrastructure assumes important social responsibility [ 38 , 39 ].
Although more jobs and optimized income distribution occurs after huge capital investments in infrastructure projects, health hazards, land expropriation and wildlife damage problems should not be neglected.
Environmentally-friendly architecture design
The multiple impacts of transportation infrastructures have received huge attention. However, the economic externality is still the most important and popular topic, which often ignores the environmental and social aspects [ 40 ]. Since the sustainable development topic has been a point of focus, the sustainable evaluation of transportation infrastructure has been increasingly valued.
Based on the traditional cost-duration-quality decision model [ 41 ], plenty of indicators and methods have been extended to identify and assess transportation sustainability. For example, some multi-criteria models based on panel data have been extended, such as the multivariate co-integration approach [ 23 ], fuzzy logic evaluation [ 42 ] and the decoupling model [ 43 ].
In addition, optimizing the network structure and analyzing the spatial relationships of infrastructure operation are the key ways to promote the urban sustainability [ 44 ].
The complex characteristics and multiple impacts of transportation infrastructures have promoted studies on the identification and modelling of transportation sustainability.
However, existing studies have mainly depended on experience to review the published articles. In addition, systematic and scientometric analysis could show complete and clear research status in this field. To build an overview of existing studies with a relatively complete literature, the scientometrics method was used to find out the scientific regularity related to the effects of transportation research based on mathematical statistics and computing techniques [ 45 ].
In addition, scientometric analysis mainly depends on bibliographic data to identify the research trends and literature relationships [ 46 ]. The visualization process of the bibliography is meaningful for discovering the potential information based on the graphical representation of data using shapes, colors and images [ 47 ]. This method reduces the difficulty in analyzing a large literature, and effectively finds the regularity and the hidden information in existing studies.
In this section, the data overview and research path of the scientometric method are presented. Data Overview The Web of Science WOS database was used to collect published literature data related to the transportation infrastructure.
Therefore, it is difficult to use for scientometric analysis.
In addition, WOS contains the most important and influential journals in the world [ 49 , 50 ]. The impact of transportation infrastructure includes many categories, such as human, economic and environmental.
Therefore, in this section, a comprehensive data overview is presented to show the trend of existing studies. This paper analyzed all collected literature in the WOS core database from to A total of bibliographic records were collected in October, , and there are 14 related records filtered by being highly cited in the field, as shown in Table 1.
Highly cited papers are the top one percent in each of the 22 Essential Science Indicators ESI subject areas per year, which indicates scientific excellence. We can see that this literature is distributed over recent years, and almost all records are related to the environmental dimensions. It is notable that the highest cited article was published in and is about biofuel application in transportation vehicles.
Additionally, Figure 1 shows the top 20 research fields related to transportation infrastructure, including engineering, transportation, business economics, environmental sciences, computer science, geography, public administration, urban studies, and so on. This means the studies related to transportation infrastructure range from the technological level to the management level, providing more challenges and opportunities to interdisciplinary research.
The research spaces permit a wide range of scientific investigations, and the robust, nonconstraining services infrastructure can be easily reconfigured in a multitude of ways. The conversion into the award-winning SuperLab maximizes the space and provides a clear parti of a core with outer rings. In the animated corridor ring, chalkboard walls invite a spontaneous exchange of ideas. At the core a large open space is divided into four fully equipped teaching quadrants, which can be combined into a single classroom with a single teaching point.
PDF Download Equipment Inventories for Owners and Facility Managers: Standards Strategies and
Andrews Biological Station St. Andrews, New Brunswick The expansion program is being driven by the need to attract and retain top research talent. Included are two new research facilities, renovations to existing structures, a review of the overall site master plan, and a new wastewater treatment system.
HOK has designed a contemporary, flexible research environment that reflects the heritage of St.
Andrews and the broader Maritime context. Wet Labs completed Science Building completed One of the main concerns of the local residents was the preservation of trees and scenic views.
The architectural solution was a foot-high steel and glass box. Its green hue and treelike structure connect with the surrounding woodlands. The circulation path through the centre mimics the rock plates that cascade down to the water and leads visitors on a continuous route, without stairs or elevators, through two levels of exhibits, support spaces, and a film theatre.
Throughout, the building and exhibits present a fully integrated vision of environmental stewardship. At the very beginning of this project the Design Team conducted a visioning session with key client representatives to clarify the project objectives further. Durability, accessibility, state-of-the-art technologies, and minimal operating costs were no surprise.
But what excited the Design Team was the emphasis on openness, accountability, and community. The parcel designed by HOK comprises of three residential buildings from seven to 49 stories in height. Sustainable design features include locally manufactured stone to clad three sides of the building and a curtain wall cladding system, chosen for higher efficiency.
To be completed in This sustainable pilot project adds ,square-feet of new space to the existing hospital, and extensive renovations.
Major components to the project included programming and planning for the decanting and staging to facilitate on-going operations with minimal impact to patients and staff.
Criteria such as durability, longevity, and flexibility, as well as requirements for universal accessibility and environmental sustainability were utilized in developing solutions. Project completed in The design program included an overall streetscape and urban design plan and the development of a large park which formed the common ground between proposed residential development and film studios.
The design thrilled the client so much that Alliance intends on utilizing the design in other international offices. With a mainly open office concept and informal meeting rooms, the new space has a very dynamic and energetic feel that attracts creative individuals and increases communication across the whole company.The design complements the scale of the existing historical buildings and academic quadrangle.
Theoretical analysis provides an in-depth understanding of the impact mechanism of transportation infrastructure according to existing studies. Andrews and the broader Maritime context. Technology - HOK uses Building Information Modeling BIM , a design and documentation methodology that makes available coordinated, computable information about a building project early in design and develops into a single model that can be shared with engineers, construction teams and, even when the time comes, your facilities managers.
In other words, the entire office becomes a work space. The complex characteristics and multiple impacts of transportation infrastructures have promoted studies on the identification and modelling of transportation sustainability. Embassy Antananarivo alerts U.