18 The assumptions of health psychology. Methodology Taylor, S.E. ( ) Adjustment to threatening events: a theory of cognitive adaptation, Ameri-. Health Psychology Shelley Taylor - [Free] Health Psychology Shelley Taylor [PDF ] [EPUB]. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY 10E Shelley E. Taylor. Health Psychology 8th Edition Taylor - [Free] Health Psychology 8th Edition Taylor [PDF]. [EPUB] Aya Ouais. Download with Google Download.
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Ogden studied for a PhD in eating behaviour at the Institute of Psychiatry, London . She then became a lecturer in health psychology at. Health Psychology 10th Edition by Shelley E Taylor ISBN ISBN Tenth edition. McGraw-Hill Education, p. ISBN When I wrote the first edition of Health Psychology over 30 years.
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Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? Health care is the largest service industry in the United States, and it is still growing rapidly. Health psychologists know what makes people satisfied or dissatisfied with their health care see Chapters 8 and 9 and can help in the design of a user-friendly health care system.
The health care industry employs millions of people.
Nearly every person in the country has direct contact with the health care system as a recipient of services. Consequently, its impact is enormous.
Chapter 1 What Is Health Psychology? To take another example, psychologists learned many years ago that informing patients fully about the procedures and sensations involved in unpleasant medical procedures such as surgery improves their adjustment Janis, ; Johnson, As a consequence of these studies, many hospitals and other treatment centers now routinely prepare patients for such procedures.
Ultimately, if a health-related discipline is to flourish, it must demonstrate a strong track record, not only as a research field but as a basis for interventions as well. Health psychology is well on its way to fulfilling both tasks. The health psychologist can be a valuable team member by providing the theoretical, methodological, and statistical expertise that is the hallmark of good training in psychology.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, great strides were made in the technical basis of medicine. As a result, physicians looked more and more to the medical laboratory and less to the mind as a way of understanding the onset and progression of illness. Increased Medical Acceptance Another reason for the development of health psychology is the increasing acceptance of health psychologists within the medical community.
Health psychologists have developed a variety of short-term behavioral interventions to address health-related problems, including managing pain, modifying bad health habits such as smoking, and controlling the side effects of treatments.
Techniques that may take a few hours to teach can produce years of benefit. A theory is a set of analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena, such as why people practice poor health behaviors. The best theories are simple and useful.
45795509.pdf - HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY THIRD EDITION Shelley E...
Throughout this text, we will see references to many theories, such as the theory of planned behavior that predicts and explains when people change their health behaviors Chapter 3. The advantages of theory for guiding research are several.
For example, the general principles of cognitive behavior therapy can tell one investigator what components should go into an intervention with breast cancer patients to help them cope with the aftermath of surgery, and these same principles can help a different investigator develop a weight loss intervention for obese people.
For example, testing theories of health behavior change revealed that people need to believe they can change their behavior, and so the importance of self-efficacy was incorporated into theories of health behaviors. Theories help tie together loose ends.
Everyone knows that smokers relapse, people go off their diets, and alcoholics have trouble remaining abstinent. A theory of relapse unites these scattered observations into general principles of relapse prevention that can be incorporated into diverse interventions.
Experiments Much research in health psychology is experimental. In an experiment, a researcher creates two or more conditions that differ from each other in exact and predetermined ways. People are then randomly assigned to these different conditions, and their reactions are measured. Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions over time are also called randomized clinical trials, in which a target treatment is compared against the existing standard of care or a placebo control, that is, an organically inert treatment.
Medical interventions increasingly are based on these methodological principles. These criteria for effectiveness are also frequently now applied to psychological interventions.
What kinds of experiments do health psychologists undertake?
To determine if social support groups improve adjustment to cancer, cancer patients might be randomly assigned to participate in a support group or to a comparison condition, such as an educational intervention.
The patients could be evaluated at a subsequent time to pinpoint how the two groups differed in their adjustment. Experiments have been the mainstay of science, because they typically provide more definitive answers to problems than other research methods.
When we manipulate a variable and see its effects, we can establish a cause-effect relationship definitively.
For this reason, experiments and randomized clinical trials are the gold standards of health psychology research. However, sometimes it is impractical to study issues experimentally. People cannot, for example, be randomly assigned to diseases.
In this case, other methods, such as correlational methods, may be used. Correlational Studies Much research in health psychology is correlational research, in which the health psychologist measures whether changes in one variable correspond with changes in another variable.
A correlational study, for example, might reveal that people who are more hostile have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. The disadvantage of correlational studies is that it is difficult to determine the direction of causality unambiguously.
For example, perhaps cardiovascular risk factors lead people to become more hostile.
On the other hand, correlational studies often have advantages over experiments because they are more adaptable, enabling us to study issues when variables cannot be manipulated experimentally. Prospective and Retrospective Designs Some of the problems with correlational studies can be remedied by using a prospective design.
Prospective research looks forward in time to see how a group of people change, or how a relationship between two variables changes over time. For example, if we were to find that hostility develops relatively early in life, but heart disease develops later, we would be more confident that hostility is a risk factor for heart disease and recognize that the reverse direction of causality—namely, that heart disease causes hostility—is less likely.
Health psychologists conduct many prospective studies in order to understand the risk factors that relate to health conditions. We might, for example, intervene in the diet of one community and not in another and over time look at the difference in rates of heart disease.
45795509.pdf - HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY THIRD EDITION Shelley E...
This would be an experimental prospective study. Alternatively, we might measure the diets that people create for themselves and look at changes in rates of heart disease, based on how good or poor the diet is. This would be an example of a correlational prospective study.
A particular type of prospective study is longitudinal research, in which the same people are observed at multiple points in time. For example, to understand what factors are associated with early breast cancer in Chapter 1 women at risk, we might follow a group of young women whose mothers developed breast cancer, identify which daughters developed breast cancer, and identify factors reliably associated with that development, such as diet, smoking, or alcohol consumption.
Investigators also use retrospective designs, which look backward in time in an attempt to reconstruct the conditions that led to a current situation. Retrospective methods, for example, were critical in identifying the risk factors that led to the development of AIDS. By taking extensive histories of the men who developed this disease, researchers were able to determine that the practice of analreceptive sex without a condom is related to the development of the disorder.
Taylor Shelley E. Health psychology
Because of retrospective studies, researchers knew some of the risk factors for AIDS even before they had identified the retrovirus. The Role of Epidemiology in Health Psychology Changing patterns of illness have been charted and followed by the field of epidemiology, a discipline closely related to health psychology in its goals and interests. Epidemiology is the study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and noninfectious disease in a population.
For example, epidemiologists study not only who has what kind of cancer but also why some cancers are more prevalent than others in particular geographic areas or among particular groups of people.
Morbidity may be expressed as the number of new cases incidence or as the total number of existing cases prevalence. Morbidity statistics, then, tell us how many people have what kinds of disorders at any given time.
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Mortality refers to numbers of deaths due to particular causes. Morbidity and mortality statistics are essential to health psychologists. Charting the major causes of disease can lead to steps to reduce their occurrence. For example, knowing that automobile accidents are a major cause of death among children, adolescents, and young adults has led to safety measures, such as child-safety restraint systems, mandatory seat belt laws, and raising the legal drinking age.By providing students with anecdotes, case histories, and specific research examples that are relevant to their own lives, they learn how important this body of knowledge is to their lives as young adults.
Throughout the book, I have made an effort to balance general coverage of psychological concepts with coverage of specific health issues. C Physician. Chapter 2, for example, can be used as assigned reading, or it can act as a resource for students wishing to clarify their understanding of biological concepts or learn more about a particular biological system or illness.
History Philosophy Portal Psychologist. D are illnesses in which psychological and social factors play an important role in both cause and management.