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Thus, Tan Malaka separates matter into the one which inside and outside of the experience. I would like to say that the latter category of matter as the unspecific category in order to classify the nonunique substances rather than Tan Malakas categorization as matters which outside of the experience itself.

Tan Malakas differentiation of matter the inside and outside experience is problematic due to the lack of vocabularies in the past or even arbitrary meaning in the present Bahasa Indonesia. The past of Bahasa Indonesia is lacked of vocabularies while the present one is arbitrarily defines matter itself as things which means that the absorption process of words into Bahasa Indonesia could not enriching the philosophical categorization of meanings for the word materi or matter.

Tan Malaka thinks that all being category is equal with the matter itself. As the consequence, he tries to explain his cosmological understanding of nature which sounds both like the Hindhus faith on reincarnation and Darwins evolution theory. This claim could be best describe on Tan Malakas statement as follow: Tan Malaka, ibid. I give the emphasize in order to show that Tan Malaka does not reject the Divine power even though he never see publicly someone to prove divinity in his or her own way.

According to Madilog, [if] there is no body, there is no nature. Soul is just specific nature on the specific body. Yet like other nature, it stops when the body stops. It changes to be chemical nature after the body gets back to the soil, water, and air.

Yet he rejects the Hindhus faith on reincarnation simply because it bases on the soul4 and not on the matter but using its kind of explanation and tries for adapting it with Darwins evolution theory. His views on body, nature, soul and the chemical process were claimed as the one and only kind of interpretation which base on Madilog while he also admits that Madilog is intended more as the way of thinking.

Not as Weltanschauung, world view, even though the way of thinking and world view or philosophy are like ladder and home, which is so close. Most thinkers would agree that more interpretations would enrich one way of thinking and more interpretations would be more interesting for others to use and explore one way of thinking.

Just as liberalism or capitalism survives from crises to crises because its ability on self-reflection even though it would be contradictive with its previous logics or dialectics; while Marxism or precisely the political and economical regime of Marxism collapsed after the Cold War in regard to its orthodoxy in interpretations.

Tan Malakas insistence that every being category as matters would sounds as the syncretic cosmological comprehension of nature because he rejects Hindhus faith on reincarnation. On the one hand, Tan Malaka believes that all witchcrafts or mysticism needs things as the hub for its power.

On the other hand, he uses it in order to justify the Darwins evolutionary theory while claiming it as scientific explanation. Hence, Tan Malaka implicitly admits that there is any unspecific category in order to classify the non-unique substance which does not exist in the frame of space, sphere, and time. These could be God, witchcrafts, or unidentified and unexplored matters which should be the object of science.

So, it would be worth to examine Tan Malakas view on science. Views on science: limited and syncretic Tan Malaka emphasizes three definitions on science: 1 accurate thought, natural science, which is accurate and precise way of thinking, or real understanding; 2 organization of facts, composing facts; 3 simplification by generalisation. Definition of science as organization of facts and composing facts do not sensitive and compatible with the differentiation among all languages over the world.

More complex one language would be more sensitive and compatible with the development of science and vice versa. Composing facts actually need appropriate words and sufficient structure of language while most Indonesian thinker would agree that Bahasa Indonesia is not ready yet to become one language of science although we should praise Takdir Alisjahbanas effort in developing Bahasa Indonesia.

Moreover, simplification by generalisation is the inductive way of developing science which tends to the hegemony of empiricism and positivism. As a matter of fact, simplification by generalisation is just one method of thinking and logic which was not quit significance in the battle of scientific theory during the history of sciences for centuries. This battles show that the deductive ways in developing theories are more and more helpful due to the lack of tools for investigating the object of natural sciences.

Moreover, Tan Malaka thinks that science itself has certain limits which should be realized by every scientist or student as follow: Yet, there are limits for science. Its limits cause that it could not or not yet develop as possible. Those limits are, first of all is in itself, secondly is out of itself. In itself, which are the lack of instrumental tools, which could precisely enlarge the little and bring something closer, and the lack of using accurate method which is dialectic.

The lack on out of itself is on the role of society on politics, economy, and social. The first lack has its significance and depends to the second lack. The lack of instruments or limits of using dialectic would vanish if the society justifies.

Immediately the incomplete instruments would perfect and the more accurate method of thinking would gain. Tan Malaka, ibid. I give emphasize. The history of science shows us that the lacks of tools are only a little challenge which could or could not be solved when the problems just appeared. Kuhn explains this kind of challenge as the part of his second form analysis of crises science which Then scientists may conclude that no solution will be forthcoming in the present state of their field.

The problem is labelled and set aside for a future generation with more developed tools. Modern days show there are width ranges of issues which relates to the internal limits of science from methodological, ethical, morals, until the ontological problems. Kuhns accounts on the revolutionary history of science and the battles among theories or even Lakatos research programs contain of both the internal and external aspects of science which are very determining on the crises science, normal science, or even shift paradigm.

As a matter of fact, Tan Malaka never writes anything in his Madilog about the shift paradigm from Geocentric to the Heliocentric which remind us that the internal limits of science do not just about the lack of tools but also about the scientists fundamental assumptions, faiths, or attitudes when doing research or facing the new discoveries or even new shocking inventions in sciences.

Feyerabendian critics on how that all students or citizens do not choose science among other form of knowledge in the ballots as their own study but rather as the ideological state which should be learnt by its citizens, just like how the Church were being the state itself in the Middle Ages; are very meaning full in order to show that scientists fundamental assumptions on science or even scientists faiths are more decisive than the lacks of instruments as the internal limits of science.

Yet Tan Malakas account on the external limits of science is truly ambitious even though the role of society on politics, economy, and social is not the main determining factor for internal limits of science especially the lack of instruments and limits of using dialectic methods. I think that both of those internal and external limits of science are determining each other and which one would more determining than the others depends on each context. Tan Malaka was very true when writing that Science does not care of colour or the shape of body.

Where there are tools, there will be progress! The colonial Dutch were still racist whenever restrict education system for the white, the Chinese, and the indigene people even though there was ethical politics which gave opportunity for high class and brilliant Indonesian to study in Holland.

Just as neo-colonialism project through overseas scholarships program for Indonesians are trying to educate the best Indonesian scholars to study abroad and then arbitrarily think that everything should be evaluate and view scientifically with no tolerance for the non-scientific but useful things.

It means that science as a product might not deal with the colour or the shape of body and it could be free value laden. Yet science as the process would be racist in order to defend its oligarchic structure just as capitalism which only brings many benefits to the white or yellow skin people.

In contrast, Tan Malaka has genuine explanation on how the non-scientific but useful things are still base on matters. Yet this kind of explanation is also syncretic because he uses materialism, dialectic and logic to explain the non-scientific but useful things.

He wrote But one magnificent nature needs matter, even like iron or humans body. In the frame of contemporary science, shaman does not base his or her nature to his or her nature itself.

Tan Malaka, ibid., p. 367.

He or she needs something, which is the reason why I said this kind of faith could not throw arbitrarily. Materialism Vs Divinity Tan Malakas ontological assumption on matters is best shown as follow: What are matter and idea in the frame of dialectic?

The matter is the things in natural sciences like what we have discussed, that is about our five senses. So it is about the real, what can be seen, be listened, be tasted, be touched and be smell.

The idea is the shape of understanding or our minds perception of things in our brains. The things are on the outside of our brains and the thought is shadow of the things in our brains.

Conversely, Tan Malakas definition on matter would be contradictive with his own understanding and appraisal to the so called magnificent nature which needs something as the manifest of its power to the others.

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Additionally, he intentionally defines Madilog is the way of thinking which bases on materialism, dialectic, and logic in order to search the consequences, which stand on sufficient evidences and sufficient experiments and to be observed.

These two questions would help to understand Tan Malakas acceptance on materialism on the one hand and divinity on the other hand. The first question might relate to Tan Malakas analysis of mind which rarely did by most Indonesian communists at the time and the Madilog itself which contains of the law of materialism, dialectic, and logic. Tan Malaka believes that: So, mind just goes through the estimated history.

The advance of mind would bounce up unmeasurably because all of our contemporary measures are constant, [that is] measurable commodity note: Laurentz, Relativity of Measurements. Yet mind moves forward in accordance with the law of movement, the law of dialectic and are complicated with its continuous history. Yet Tan Malaka never denies the existence of Divine power as his statement Nor do I mean that there is no divinity15 in the world, which has been known. Knowledge would not over and might not over.

Like one you said, two I said. One million your answer, one million and one I reply. I am not saying that Tan Malakas admittance is compatible with the emanation theory but it seems alike in its 13 14 Tan Malaka, ibid. He writes: Ignoring the dialectic which base on materialism could slam the experts to the nature of mystic or to the nature of mechanism. From the composition of cell to the composition of humans body, from instinct to mind, all things and nature are subject to the law of dialectic.

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Rethinking Tan Malaka's Madilog

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Daniel uses real-lif Hiram Martin Chittenden — was a leading historian of the American West, especially the fur trade.Body, like one faith, is outside of the experience. Moreover, simplification by generalisation is the inductive way of developing science which tends to the hegemony of empiricism and positivism.

Knowledge would not over and might not over. One prominent thinker, politician, and even philosopher in the modern Indonesia is Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka who also was a communist for the most of his life time. I would like to say that Tan Malaka as a philosopher rather than politician, not only because he was failed as a politician — in order to gain the power because Soekarno is the one who was succeeded to take the power as president — but also he is success in explaining his philosophical thought through his magnum opus Madilog.

I give the emphasize in order to show that Tan Malaka does not reject the Divine power even though he never see publicly someone to prove divinity in his or her own way. A tan and sandy silence.

Kuhn explains this kind of challenge as the part of his second form analysis of crises science which Then scientists may conclude that no solution will be forthcoming in the present state of their field.