Human Factors Design Handbook Wesley Woodson, Peggy Tillman, Barry Tillman This Human Factors Design Handbook book is not really ordinary book , you have it then the world is in your hands. Tillman ebook PDF download. Human. Handbook of human factors and ergonomics/edited by Gavriel Salvendy. — 4th ed. His main research deals with the human aspects of design, operation. Foreword. The Human Factors Design Guide (HFDG) for Acquisition of practice is consistent with metric standard and handbook sources.
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Human Factors Design Guidelines for Multifunction Displays. 6. erforming Organization Human Factors Design Handbook (Woodson,. Tillman, & Tillman. View Table of Contents for Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Human Factors Engineering and Systems Design (Pages: ). Human Factors Design Handbook [Wesley Woodson, Peggy Tillman, Barry Tillman] on xumodaperma.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Practical guidelines.
For private consumers, digital photography brings about a new way of thinking about pictures; because there is no need to worry about cost, one can afford to take many pictures and throw away the bad ones either on the spot or at a later time. This essentially amounts to a completely new practice of picture taking, as well as of storing. Yet another effect is that pictures from digital cameras can be used as a complement to symbols in communication for people with cognitive disabilities see, e.
Pictures can, for instance, replace verbal descriptions both in remembering the past and in communicating with others and thereby help people with aphasia or other disabilities.
As these few examples show, the introduction of a new artefact—the digital camera— has wide-ranging consequences for how we think about the function that it provides taking pictures , and it may lead to innovative applications. Although some of these changes may have been anticipated, it is a fair bet that most of them were not and that even now we do not appreciate the full impact of digital photography on our daily lives. This example illustrates that the design of the artefact is woefully incomplete if it is focused just on taking the pictures.
Electronic Mail as Bookkeeping A different and more straightforward example is the use of electronic mail. From a bumpy beginning in the mids, e-mail has now become the practical standard for communication— business as well as private. The design of e-mail systems has also converged toward a common style of interface, which usually includes some kind of list or overview of the e-mails that remain in the inbox.
Although the primary purpose of such a list is to show the e-mails that have arrived recently or since the service was last used, the e-mails that have been received usually remain on the list until the user actively deletes them. In this way the list can be used to keep track of e-mails that have been received but not yet acted on.
Many people, including myself, use the inbox list as a bookkeeping device and as a way of managing correspondence and activities. In this way the artefact—the e-mail system—changes the way in which I work over and above what was intended.
It not only makes it faster and easier to receive and send messages, but also serves as a reasonably effective to-do list. Other, and perhaps more serious, consequences of the use e-mail are to the way information is archived and events are documented. A number of court cases around the world have shown that this is not an easy problem to solve. This goes way beyond the aim of the example here—e-mail as bookkeeping—but it illustrates in a dramatic sense that the change from one way of doing things to another, in this case the change from physical to electronic media, has far-reaching consequences.
One reason is that each chapter has its own abstract, which the reader can use quickly to get an impression of what the chapter is about.
As a consequence of that, the handbook is simply organised in three major parts, called Theory, Methods, and Field Studies, respectively. The various chapters have been put into one of these parts based on whether their main thrust is on theory, methods, or applications. In this, as in many other cases, the linear ordering imposed by a printed document cannot do justice to the multifariousness of the contents.
In any case, there is no single ordering that can satisfy the needs of all readers; so, rather than trying to solve an impossible problem, this prolegomenon has been provided to offer a basic outline of what CTD is. Epilogue: Mr. Pott looked dubiously at Bob Sawyer for some seconds, and, turning to Mr.
Proceedings of workshop on cognitive modelling of nuclear plant control room operators Report No. Washington, DC: U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Aschwanden, C. Tread softly. New Scientist, , 32— Beer, S. Cybernetics and management. New York: Science Editions. Card, S. The psychology of human-computer interaction. Making use: Scenario-based design of human-computer interactions.
Chi, M. Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, — Chipman, S. Introduction to cognitive task analysis. Schraagen, S. Shalin Eds. Cook, R. Adapting to new technology in the operating room. Human Factors, 38 4 , — Dickens, C. The Pickwick Papers. Dowell, J. Towards a conception for an engineering discipline of human factors.
Ergonomics, 32, — Ehn, P.
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Design for quality-in-use: Human-computer interaction meets information systems development. Helander, T. Prabhu Eds.
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science. Glaser, R. Advances in instructional psychology. Greenbaum, J. Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems.
Hall, A. Buckley Ed. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Helander, M. Handbook of human—computer interaction 2nd ed. Helmreich, R. Managing human error in aviation. Hollnagel, E.
Cognitive systems engineering: New wine in new bottles Tech. Cognitive systems engineering: New wine in new bottles. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, — Hutchins, E. Culture and inference: A trobriand case study. The technology of team navigation. Galegher, R. Egido Eds. Cognition in the wild.
Jordan, B. Interaction analysis: Foundations and practice. The Journal for the Learning Sciences, 4 1 , 39— Isaac—a personal digital assistant for the differently abled. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Kieras, D. Towards a practical GOMS model methodology for user interface design. Helander Ed. New York: North-Holland. Klein, G. Decision making in action: Models and methods.
Norwood, NJ: Ablex. McKeithen, K. Knowledge organization and skill differences in computer programmers. Cognitive Psychology, 13, — Nielsen, J. Usability engineering. Boston MA: Academic Press. The wife may need to help her husband with various activities and operate the telemonitoring equipment. Use of both the glucometer and the telemonitoring equipment requires the ability to read labels and displays, operate controls, calibrate the equipment, and understand and remember operating procedures.
The environment also plays an important role. In this case, the couple may live in a small apartment in a rural location with unreliable Internet access. However, they may have neighbors who check on them and children who visit regularly. If the fit is poor, he may develop complications that require him be hospitalized.
This would increase his risk for comorbidities, such as infection, and also result in a dramatic increase in the cost of care. Misfits among system components may occur at a number of points in the system interactions. For example, the man may not be able to adhere to his medication schedule.
He and his wife may have problems using the glucometer and become frustrated and so discontinue using it. Clearly this is a complex system with many risks for misfit or failure. These risks could be avoided or minimized and the chances for success maximized with the integration of human factors considerations into the design of the system.
As with other disciplines, they use a variety of research methods that range from highly controlled laboratory experiments, to less controlled observational studies in real-world contexts, to simulation and modeling.
When engaging in research, they also use a variety of data collection techniques that include objective measurement of performance or physiological indices; subjective ratings of satisfaction, comfort, or workload; observational checklists; and interview methods. As with any discipline, the research method chosen and the type of data collected depend on the nature of the problem and other issues, such as feasibility, cost, and time constraints.
For example, in order to design cognitive aids to support the ability of people to engage in Internet-based health information seeking, it is important to understand the cognitive abilities that are required to perform this task successfully.
This would typically involve conducting research in a laboratory setting to investigate the relationship between cognition Page 65 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"3 What Is Human Factors?. The research protocol is likely to entail assessing the cognitive abilities of study participants using standard measures of cognition; having the participants perform a sample set of health information search tasks; asking the participants to rate the level of difficulty of the tasks and identify the sources of difficulty; and examining the relationship between the measures of cognition and measures of performance e.
Another example is an observational study, in which the goal is to understand if the prevalence of Internet-based health information seeking varies among age or ethnic subgroups. In this case, telephone or mail surveys or real-time tracking of Internet behavior might be used to gather the needed information. Sometimes the information gathered about behavior is used to develop mathematical models or simulations, which can then be used in the design of tasks or technologies.
For example, biomechanical models are often used to evaluate or compare physical demands of tasks or environments. These models might be used to predict the amount of stress on the spines of caregivers to help in the design or selection of mechanical aids for transferring care recipients from a bed to a wheelchair or shower.
System Design and Evaluation User-Centered Design Optimally, human factors methods and principles are involved in all aspects of the design process, including the predesign analysis, design expression and prototyping, testing, and evaluation see Figure Food and Drug Administration for some medical devices on the market. Human factors specialists use a variety of methods to support the design process. The overriding principle is to center the design process on the person or persons in the system; in other words, human factors practitioners adopt a user-centered design approach.
User-centered design, as a design philosophy, has been around for several decades e. In fact, user-centered design has been elevated to a standard International Organization for Standardization, [ISO ]. As needs are determined and design features conceptualized, it is useful to develop prototypes of the design at each point in its development and to test these prototypes with the intended user population.
Often the information gained from such prototyping and testing will need to be fed back to inform changes in design that will improve the product or system. This repeated prototyping, testing, and revisiting of the design, shown by the recursive arrows in Figure , is the best way to ensure good fit with user needs, expectations, and capabilities.
Even after the product or system is marketed, it is useful to solicit and analyze feedback on it from users to inform updates or new designs.
The user-needs analysis usually includes such characteristics as age, education, gender, culture and ethnicity, physical and cognitive abilities, relevant skills, language, and literacy, among others. Gathering this information might involve conducting interviews with potential users to understand their goals and objectives with respect to a particular system or system component, such as a device, where it will be used, how often it will be used, experiences with similar devices, etc.
It is important to recognize that, for health care in the home, the users are heterogeneous and include people who engage in self-care or receive care and both lay and professional caregivers who vary widely in their skills, abilities, and characteristics see Chapter 2. As noted in Figure , the environment is multifaceted and not restricted to its physical characteristics.
It is also used in the evaluation of existing systems to help identify design problems and sources of mismatches between system demands and user-group capabilities. These demands are then compared with the capabilities of the planned user population to determine where errors and inefficiencies are likely to arise. The result is a list of potential mismatches keyed to each task and subtask, which is the basis for deriving design requirements for a usable system.
The current standard task analysis methodology is hierarchical task analysis HTA , although many methods are available. HTA starts from system goals and uses a systematic goal decomposition methodology until a sufficient level of detail is reached to solve the problem at hand. The result of the analysis is generally a hierarchical structure that can be represented either graphically or in an outline-like formatted table that organizes tasks as sets of actions used to accomplish higher level goals.
Chapter 4 presents several examples of this methodology. In health care, many tasks, especially those relying on the use of technology, draw heavily on cognitive capabilities with users required to receive, understand, evaluate, and act on information. For these, one might perform a cognitive task analysis, which can be conceptualized as task analysis applied to the cognitive domain.
In this case the demands focus on the knowledge structures e. Often, the analysis is performed by assuming a computational model of the relevant cognitive processes, and the specific analysis approaches depend on the model adopted. Many techniques are used for the collection of task data, including observation, interviews, questionnaires, and review of instruction manuals. The human factors literature is often used to find the range of capabilities in the appropriate population to compare with the task demands.
Handbook of Cognitive Task Design (Human Factors and Ergonomics)
These tests may take the form of focus groups or usability testing with early mock-ups or mid-stage prototypes or final system components. Often in usability testing, a variety of prototypes or mock-ups are used.
For example, in the early stages of usability testing, two-dimensional representations of a device or user interface a graphical, nonfunctioning version of a system or storyboards that describe in a series of images the steps involved in execution of a task may be used, whereas working prototype devices or fully interactive systems may be used in later stages of testing.
Frequently, especially in software engineering, human factors specialists use iterative prototyping, involving a series of tests with rough prototypes and short revision cycles National Research Council, In usability testing it is important to ensure that the participants are representative of the anticipated user groups and that the data collection techniques capture both the demands associated with the activities they will be performing and the relevant environmental contexts.
This is especially important with respect to health care systems for the home, for which the potential user groups are broad and diverse.
Usability metrics include measures of effectiveness e. Sources of Human Factors Data Human factors specialists rely on a variety of sources of information to guide their involvement in the design process. This may initially include review of the existing literature, data compendiums, and design standards and guidelines. Databases that contain information on human capabilities are also available e. The document provides human dimension data and explains proper techniques for applying these data, which may vary depending on the complexity of the population to be accommodated.
The guide includes a long list of resources and references Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, In addition, a number of design standards and guidelines are available to guide the design process of medical devices and systems see Chapter 5. This includes the initial design of systems and system components to avoid problems and deficiencies, as well as the diagnosis and identification of problems with existing systems.
Thus, the concepts and methods of human factors have broad applicability to health care in the home. For example, human factors techniques can be applied to the design of health care equipment and technologies, such as medication dispensers, glucometers, nebulizers, blood pressure monitors, telemedicine technologies, and software interfaces for Internet health applications. These techniques can also be applied to the design of instruction manuals and training programs to ensure that individuals or their caregivers have the information and skills they need to operate equipment and perform health care tasks.
Human factors techniques can be used to inform the design of a home environment to ensure that lighting, layout, and space are adequate for the tasks being performed or the design of a neighborhood to help ensure that there is adequate and effective signage.
Wiley Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 4th Edition.pdf
Human factors approaches are also relevant to the design of jobs for health care workers. For example, human factors methods can be used to determine workflow, to coordinate work, to maintain scheduling and communication protocols, and to determine work requirements to ensure worker productivity, safety, and health.
Human factors can have input into the broader organizational environment to help design and implement safety programs, certification protocols, or program evaluation methods. In fact, the goals of human factors are commensurate with the goals stated in the report Crossing the Quality Chasm Institute of Medicine, for health system reform: safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency, and equality.
There are numerous examples in the health care domain in which the application of human factors has resulted in reduced errors and cost, increased safety, efficiency, and effectiveness, and personal satisfaction. These examples include efforts to enhance safety and reduce medical errors e. Human factors methods have also been applied to the design of medical equipment and devices e. This is in contrast to a more traditional reductionist approach, which focuses on one component of a system in isolation from the other components.
Using a traditional approach, the focus is typically on the physical or technical components of a system, with little regard for the human. For example, glucometer or medication instructions may be designed without considering how the persons using these instructions might vary in terms of age, cognitive and sensory capabilities, English literacy, health literacy, or stage of illness acceptance.
For example, such errors could include lapses in performing health promotion and disease prevention behaviors, not adhering to a prescribed treatment, ignoring warning signs of complications, and not sharing important information about health history, symptoms, or response to treatment with caregivers.
Other examples include potentially life-threatening events, such as misreading output from health monitoring equipment, altering equipment settings, turning off alarms, sustaining injuries due to poor body mechanics during lifting and transfers, or continuing intravenous IV antibiotic infusion in a person who is showing signs of allergic reaction.
There are many types of human error, and the causes and consequences of these errors vary. Some errors and their consequences are preventable via good device or environmental design, whereas others must be handled through procedural or administrative solutions or through user education and training.
They also require knowledge of whether the fit among these system elements is adequate. In summary, applying human factors knowledge and techniques to the design of health care systems intended for use in the home can make the systems safer, more effective, and more efficient.For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.
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Often, the analysis is performed by assuming a computational model of the relevant cognitive processes, and the specific analysis approaches depend on the model adopted. As with other disciplines, they use a variety of research methods that range from highly controlled laboratory experiments, to less controlled observational studies in real-world contexts, to simulation and modeling.
Recheck validity of decomposition with stakeholders. Chipman, S. In addition to intrusiveness, the layout, text format, and interface display of alerts likely influence alert effectiveness and medication safety.
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